Kappaleen johdanto Huizinga play is voluntary action where diipa daapa....
2.1 PELAAMISEN MOTIIVIT
An empirical model of player motivations in online games provides the foundation to
understanding and assessing how players differ from one another and how motivations of play
relate to age, gender, usage patterns and in-game behaviors. In the current study, a factor
analytic approach was used to create an empirical model of player motivations. The analysis
revealed 10 motivation subcomponents that grouped into 3 overarching components
(Achievement, Social, and Immersion). Relationships between motivations and demographic
variables (age, gender, and usage patterns) are also presented."(2)
"Being able to articulate and
quantify these motivations provides the foundation to explore whether different sections of
the player demographic are motivated differently, and whether certain motivations are more
highly correlated with usage patterns or other in-game behaviors. Such a model has value for
both researchers and game designers." "And for game
developers, findings may clarify how certain game mechanics may attract or deter certain
"While Bartle's Player Types 3 is a well-known player taxonomy of Multi-User
Dungeon (MUD) users, the underlying assumptions of the model have never been empirically
tested. For example, Bartle assumed that preference for one type of play suppressed (e.g.,
Achievement) other types of play (e.g., Socializing or Exploring). Also, it has never been
empirically shown that the four Player Types are indeed independent Types. In other words,
several of the Types may correlate to a high degree. In essence, it would be hard to use
Bartle's model on a practical basis unless it was validated with and grounded in empirical" (3-4)
"The factor analysis revealed that play motivations in MMORPGs do not suppress each
other as Bartle suggested. Just because a player scores high on the Achievement component
doesn't mean they can't also score high on the Social component. This is supported by the
data - correlations among the 3 main components are weak"(6)
"Oftentimes, both the media and media effects researchers collapse all video gamers
into a simplistic archetype. While this facilitates making sweeping generalizations of
potentially deviant behaviors or consequences (i.e., addiction and aggression), this strategy
inevitably ignores the important fact that different people choose to play games for very
different reasons, and thus, the same video game may have very different meanings or
consequences for different players. The study described in this paper was an attempt to
articulate the myriad of motivations of play among MMO players, and an exploration of how
these motivational factors can provide us with analytical tools to describe and understand the
preference for and effects of game-play for different kinds of players. The empirical model
developed in this study provides a solid foundation for future quantitative research in online
games by providing a model to understand player motivations, a tool to assess those
motivations, and thus also a means to understand usage patterns, in-game behaviors and
demographic variables in relation to player motivations. (7-8)"
2.1.1 The Achievement Component:
Advancement: Gamers who score high on this subcomponent derive satisfaction from reaching goals, leveling quickly and accumulating in-game resources such as gold. They enjoy making constant progress and gaining power in the forms offered by the game - combat prowess, social recognition, or financial/industrial superiority. Gamers who score high on this subcomponent are typically drawn to serious, hard-core guilds that can facilitate their advancement.http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001298.php?page=5
Mechanics: Gamers who score high on Mechanics derive satisfaction from analyzing and understanding the underlying numerical mechanics of the system. For example, they may be interested in calculating the precise damage difference between dual-wielding one-handed swords vs. using a two-handed sword, or figuring out the resolution order of dodges, misses, and evasions. Their goal in understanding the underlying system is typically to facilitate templating or optimizing a character that excels in a particular domain. http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001298.php?page=5
Competition: Gamers who score high on this subcomponent enjoy the rush and experience of competing with other gamers on the battlefield or economy. This includes both fair, constrained challenges - such as dueling or structured PvP/RvR, as well as unprovoked acts - such as scamming or griefing. Gamers who score high on this subcomponent enjoy the power of beating or dominating other players. http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001298.php?page=5
2.1.2 The Social Component:
Socializing: Gamers who score high on this subcomponent enjoy meeting and getting to know other gamers. They like to chit-chat and gossip with other players as well as helping out others in general - whether these be less-experienced players or existing friends. Gamers who score high on this subcomponent are typically drawn to casual, friendly guilds.
Relationship: Gamers who score high on this subcomponent are looking to form sustained, meaningful relationships with others. They do not mind having personal and meaningful conversations with others that touch on RL issues or problems. They typically seek out close online friends when they need support and give support when others are dealing with RL crises or problems.
Teamwork: Gamers who score high on Teamwork enjoy working and collaborating with others. They would rather group than solo, and derive more satisfaction from group achievements than from individual achievements. Gamers who score low on this subcomponent prefer to solo and find it extremely important to be self-sufficient and not have to rely on other gamers. They typically group only when it is absolutely necessary.
2.1.3 The Immersion Component:
Discovery: Players who score high on Discovery enjoy exploring the world and discovering locations, quests or artifacts that others may not know about. They enjoy traveling just to see different parts of the world as well as investigating physical locations (such as dungeons and caves). They enjoy collecting information, artifacts or trinkets that few others have.
Role-Playing: Players who score high on Role-Playing enjoy being immersed in a story through the eyes of a character that they designed. These players typically take time to read or understand the back-story of the world as well as taking time to create a history and story for their characters. Also, they enjoy role-playing their characters as a way of integrating their character into the larger ongoing story of the world.
Customization: Players who score high on this subcomponent enjoy customizing the appearance of their characters. It is very important to them that their character has a unique style or appearance. They like it when games offer a breadth of customization options and take time to make sure that their character has a coherent color scheme and style.
Escapism: Gamers who score high on Escapism use the environment as a place to relax or relieve their stress from the real world. These players may use the game as a way to avoid thinking about their RL problems or in general as a way to escape RL.
Pelaaminen performanssina ja kyberneettisenä aktiviteettina
Pelaajan rooli ei tulkitseva vaan Konfiguroiva, pelaamisen osana ruumiilliset kokemukset.
Flow ja Immersiivisyys
Immersiivisyyden ja Flow:n selitys (mahdollisesti pelkkä flow)
Dovey, Jon & Kennedy, Helen W. 2006: Games Cultures: Computer Games as New Media. London. Open University Press.
Kerr, Aphra 2006: The Business and Culture of Digital Games: Gamework and Gameplay. London & Thousand Oaks & New Delhi. Sage.
Williams, J. Patrick, Hendricks, Sean Q. and Winkler, W. Keith 2006: Gaming As Culture: Essays on Reality, Identity And Experience in Fantasy Games. Jefferson. McFarland.
Eskelinen, Markku 2005: Pelit ja pelitutkimus luovassa taloudessa. Sitran raportteja 51. Helsinki. Edita Prima Oy. http://www.sitra.fi/Julkaisut/Raportti51.pdf
Harrigan, Pat & Wardrip-Fruin, Noah (toim.) 2004: First Person - New Media as Story, Game and Performance. Cambridge and London. MIT Press.
Yee Nick 2005: A Model of Player Motivations http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001298.php?page=1
Yee Nick 2005 http://www.nickyee.com/daedalus/archives/001304.php?page=4
Bartke A Richard 1996 http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm